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Behrang Norouzinia
0 Questions, 39 Answers
  Active since 31 December 2022
  Last activity 2 months ago


459 + 49 this September 1 67

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2 Does anyone knows how to hardcode an address in smart contract?

In FunC you can use string literals with a tag. For example: "Ef8zMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzMzM0vF"a

More info: https://ton.org/docs/develop/func/literals_identifiers#string-literals

7 months ago
2 Dynamically add refs into builder type

With a minor change, you can. In the while loop, assign qRefs.store_ref to qRefs. In fact you don't need to keep references to the old builder. I would write it like this:

() save_data_on_update(slice destination_address) impure inline {
  builder b = begin_cell();
	b = b.store_slice(destination_address);
	repeat (4) {
	  b = b.store_ref(begin_cell().store_uint(0, 1).end_cell());
	cell c = b.end_cell();
8 months ago
2 Is it more cost-effective to use Fift instead of FunC?

You can do it, and it probably helps your smart contract to consume less gas, however, it makes it more difficult to read it and check it for security reasons, and also makes maintenance of it harder.

I guess it doesn't worth it to save some gas in the TON ecosystem, because gas prices are fixed, and they're very cheap.

6 months ago
2 How to run integration tests without testnet?

You can use Sandbox to deploy multiple smart contracts and do the integration test.


6 months ago
1 Convert public key of validator to correct format

Validators create a new keypair for each round of validation, and use that to participate in elections and create blocks. They may also change their ADNL address on each round, but that's not what they usually do.

If you want to look at their wallets on TON blockchain explorers, you have to first find the controlling wallet, that is the wallet that sends TON to participate in elections.

This information can be looked up by running the get method participant_list_extended and it only r...

one month ago
1 Are the gas fees the same for mainnet and testnet?

Gas prices are calculated by looking at config params 20 (for masterchain) and 21 (for basechain). As long as they are the same, the calculated gas fees will be the same.

I checked it and currently on the basechain they're equal, but on the masterchain, they're not.

Also storage fees are dependent on the runtime state of each account, so they'll surely be different, although usually it's a very small fee.

There is also a forward fee which might differ depending on the blockchain conf...

one month ago
1 What is considered "highload usage" for a wallet?

Regular wallets can send up to 4 transactions in each request. Since they need to sign seq_no, this limits them to 4 transactions every 5 seconds or so. If you need more bandwidth, for example a thousand transaction or more, you may use a highload wallet.

7 months ago
1 TON jettons VS Solana token transactions.

Consider using another solution like PaymentChannels:

This way you can move the costly operation off-chain, and you can open the channel once for each user.

8 months ago
1 Where does ~dump make a dump?

It will log to standard output of TVM. The way you execute TVM, determines the way output is generated or logged. So you have to run TVM with your smart contract and the input message, and then check the debug log. For example, if you use ton-contract-executor, it will be available in debugLogs field of the result.

7 months ago
1 In FunC, is there an equivalent to Solidity's mapping?


Dicts can be used to store a map of keys to values. However, in TON, it's recommended to avoid storing unbounded dicts. That is dicts that grow dynamically as time passes. The use case that you described is a dynamic one. The reason to avoid it is that your storage grows, and as it grows you have to pay more and more to keep it on the blockchain.

To store a dynamic list, you have to break it into smaller parts. This is called sharding, and you can find more info about how to d...

7 months ago
1 What is seqno?

Seqno is one way to prevent Replay Attacks. When a transaction is sent to a wallet smart contract, it compares the seqno field of the transaction with the one inside its storage. If they match, it's accepted and the stored seqno is incremented by one. If they don't match, the transaction is discarded.

Without seqno (or another mechanism to prevent Replay Attacks), anyone (usually the receiver of funds) can read the transaction data (for example from blockchain explorers) and create another...

7 months ago
1 Should a P2E game has its own custom token (Jetton)?

Consider using TON Payments to minimize fees for lots of transactions:


6 months ago
1 Need assistance with creating an automatic jetton distribution smart contract

You can use the ICO version of Jetton smart contract which is available here:

You have to change the multiplier for your jetton. For example, multiplying to 1000, means that 1 TON equals 1000 of your jettons.

Then you can deploy it and anyone sending Toncoin to it, will receive your jettons.

Note that this is a template and you have to add additional functionality on top of it, like stopping it when i...

7 months ago
1 What happens when you transfer TON coin to an uninitialized wallet address?

It depends on many factors.

  1. You have included the initState (that is the code and data of the wallet or smart contract) alongside your transaction. In this case the smart contract is deployed first, and then it handles the incoming message. This is similar to sending the transaction to an initialized account.

  2. No initState, and bounce flag is set. In this case, the message cannot be delivered to a smart contract and the message will be bounced back to the sender. After subtra...

8 months ago
1 Why do some projects that accept TON coins require memo?

Sometimes, exchanges create a single wallet account, and use it to receive transfers of all their users. They need a way to distinguish between different users, and know who sent what fund to credit the correct account on their database. Memo is used here, and they assign a separate number to each user and ask them to use it when they transfer funds. Then they use this number to find the owner.

The other approach is to create a separate wallet for each user. This way, there is no need for ...

7 months ago
1 What does "inactive" wallet status mean?

Inactive means the wallet is not initialized yet, meaning that the code for the smart contract of your wallet is not yet deployed on the network.

This is not problematic, and you can use your wallet to receive funds on the network without initializing it first. Multiple deposits can be sent to your wallet. However, to withdraw, you need to first deploy it, and wallet softwares do this automatically on first withdrawal.

In fact, many wallets are initialized after their first deposit!


7 months ago
1 Can you explain the purpose of the "recv_internal" function in FunC? And what is the connection between FunC and Fift?

In TON, smart contracts are executed inside TVM (TON Virtual Machine). TVM expects instructions in a specific binary format, available here:


These binary instructions are like assembly code, and writing them by hand is very hard. At the beginning Fift was created as a scripting language to make it easier to write smart contract codes. It has a special syntax and working with it is easier than TVM instructions, but it's still very ...

7 months ago
1 Is there 'float' in FunC?

There is no float in FunC, and TVM in general. Floating point numbers are useful in scientific calculations. Because they don't have exact precision, they are usually not that useful in applications working with money.

TON amounts like 1.234567890 are stored as a big integer of nano tons like 1234567890 and when displayed to user, they are divided by 1 billion in client side applications, so the user can view a more friendly and understandable amount. Other monetary values like jettons u...

7 months ago
1 Is there a maximum storage limit for a smart contract?

Yes, the data should fit in the c4 register. c4 is limited to a depth of <= 512. Read more here:

If you use cells in a linear single ref tree, you are limited to 512 * 1023 = 523776 bits or near 64 KB. But if you use all cells to store data, it's a very huge tree with a lot of space. Only at the bottom layer it has 4 ** 511 cells.

7 months ago
1 Why are the highload wallets needed?

Regular wallets can send at most 4 transactions at once, and they need to sign the current seq_no. This in effect limits them to 4 transactions every 5 second, and this operation need to be serialized, meaning that there needs to be a single service sending these 4 transactions.

Highload wallets can send up to 254 transactions in a single request, and they don't need a seq_no. This way, they can send many transactions, multiple times without needing to wait between each batch, and ther...

7 months ago
0 How to make a new address on TON active?

When you create a smart contract on TON (such as a wallet), its address is pre-calculated, even before being deployed. You can start sending it money and messages, and if the sent messages are non-bounceable, the balance of the account on-chain will be increased. In this case, you will see the account is still uninitialized and not activated, but it has a positive TON balance.

To activate it, you have to deploy the smart contract. If this is a wallet smart contract, it will automatically g...

3 months ago
0 How to compare two slices for equality?

Looks like it is removed to force developers to use equal_slice_bits function. This function name is better in that it highlights the fact that only bits are compared and not references.

This is the old definition of both:

;;; Checks whether the data parts of two slices coinside
int equal_slice_bits(slice a, slice b) asm "SDEQ";
int equal_slices(slice a, slice b) asm "SDEQ";

So these were both equal functions.

one month ago
0 What's the difference between addresses that start with EQ and those that start with UQ?

Address that start with EQ are bounceable addresses, and those that start with UQ are non-bounceable addresses. These are only a hint to the wallet software that you want the sent message to be able to bounce or not.

When an error occurs in the target smart contract, usually a bounced message will return to the sender. In some cases you don't want the error message to be generated and also you don't want the transferred TON to be returned.

One such case is when you want to deploy a smar...

6 months ago
0 How to optimize gas usage in a smart contract?

There is a page on ton.org that presents some best practices for optimizing gas:


12 days ago
0 What would happen if someone tried to send Toncoins from mainnet to testnet?

Your transfer happens on mainnet, and will be sent to the address you specified. What happens will depend on a few factors:

  1. If you (or your wallet) disable bounce flag, the TON amount will be sent and will remain at the recipient's account.

  2. If you (or your wallet) keep the bounce flag, then it depends on the recipient account:

    A. If there is no smart contract at the destination, it will bounce back.

    B. If there is a smart contract, it will depend on its behavior, and ...

12 days ago
0 Can a FunC variable store the result of a logical expresson?

Yes, it's supported, and your code is valid. enough? will be an integer, with value -1.

12 days ago
0 What numbers mean "true" and "false" in FunC?

false is zero. true is -1. All other non-zero integers are also like a boolean true.

12 days ago
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