No, right now you can use only FunC as an high level language to develop smart contract.
To use Rust (or any other language that uses LLVM) you should start by writing a backend for it, than you might be able to produce valid TON VM instructions from rust code.
Posted 7 months ago
Marking this as the correct answer since it was true before Tact was properly developed. For future reference, Tact is a new smart contract language for TON that is closer to Solidity, which might make development easier: