It depends on whether or not a transaction is internal or external.
If a transaction is internal, it depends on the bounce flag. If the address that the internal transaction is directed to is bounceable, then that 10 TON amount minus gas will be returned to the original address. The transaction will still be recoreded in the blockchain.
If a transaction is external, then it depends on the accept call in the code. If the throw is before the accept, then it will not be recoreded in the blockchain and thus the 10 TON will stay where it was originally.
In the example you gave, there is likely a wallet middleman:
Main account -> wallet -> contract, so an external transaction and an internal transaction.